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The BARS Review, No. 49 (Spring 2017)

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The Editors are pleased to announce the publication of the 49th number of The BARS Review, the seventh available in full online through the new website.  This number includes twenty-seven reviews covering thirty-one new publications, as well as a special spotlight on Romantic Revolutions.  The list of contents below includes links to the html versions of the articles, but all the reviews are also available as pdfs.  If you want to browse through the whole number at your leisure, a pdf compilation of all the reviews is available.

If you have any comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.

Editor: Susan Valladares (St Hugh’s College, University of Oxford)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)

 


The BARS Review, No 49 (Spring 2017)

Table of Contents

Reviews

Meiko O’Halloran, James Hogg and British Romanticism: A Kaleidoscopic Art
Holly Faith Nelson
Gillian Williamson, British Masculinity in the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731 to 1815
Caroline Gonda
Bernard Beatty, Byron’s Don Juan
Anna Camilleri
Clara Tuite, Lord Byron and Scandalous Celebrity
Emily A. Bernhard Jackson
Sara Guyer, Reading with John Clare: Biopoetics, Sovereignty, Romanticism
Adam White
Adam Roberts, Landor’s Cleanness. A Study of Walter Savage Landor
Gioia Angeletti
Marilyn Butler, Mapping Mythologies: Countercurrents in Eighteenth-Century British Poetry and Cultural History
Chris Bundock
Mark Canuel, ed., British Romanticism: Criticism and Debates
Octavia Cox
Adriana Craciun, Writing Arctic Disaster: Authorship and Exploration
Murray Pittock
David Porter, The Chinese Taste in the Eighteenth Century
William Christie
Jennifer Jesse, William Blake’s Religious Vision: There’s a Methodism in His Madness
Keri Davies
Andrew Bennett, ed., William Wordsworth in Context and Robert M. Ryan, Charles Darwin and the Church of Wordsworth
Christopher Donaldson
Kate Parker and Courtney Weiss Smith, eds., Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Rise of the Novel Reconsidered and Eric Parisot, Graveyard Poetry: Religion, Aesthetics and the Mid-Eighteenth-Century Poetic Condition
Tobias Menely
Angela Wright and Dale Townshend, eds., Romantic Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion
Matt Foley
Jim Davis, Comic Acting and Portraiture in Late-Georgian and Regency England
Heather McPherson
Liam Lenihan, The Writings of James Barry and the Genre of History Painting, 1775-1809
Christopher Rovee
John Bugg, ed., The Joseph Johnson Letterbook
James M. Morris
Stewart Cooke with Elaine Bander, eds., The Additional Journals and Letters of Frances Burney, Volume I: 1784-1786
Cassandra Ulph
Amy Prendergast, Literary Salons Across Britain and Ireland in the Long Eighteenth Century
Susanne Schmid
Tim Fulford, Romantic Poetry and Literary Coteries: The Dialect of the Tribe and Tim Fulford and Michael E. Sinatra, eds., The Regency Revisited
Josefina Tuominen-Pope
Matthew Wickman, Literature After Euclid: The Geometric Imagination in the Long Scottish Enlightenment
Marcus Tomalin
Mark J. Bruhn and Donald R. Wehrs, eds., Cognition, Literature, and History
Niall Gildea
Chase Pielak, Memorializing Animals during the Romantic Period
Barbara K. Seeber

Spotlight: Romantic Revolutions

David Andress, ed., The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution
Liam Chambers
A. D. Cousins and Geoffrey Payne, eds., Home and Nation in British Literature from the English to the French Revolutions
Amy Milka
James Mulholland, Sounding Imperial: Poetic Voice and the Politics of Empire, 1730-1820 and Evan Gottlieb, Romantic Globalism: British Literature and Modern World Order, 1750-1830
Juan Luis Sánchez
Mary Fairclough, The Romantic Crowd: Sympathy, Controversy and Print Culture
David Fallon

‘Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820’ edited by Katherine M. Quinsey

From the Voltaire Foundation:

A new edited volume entitled Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820 has just been published – including several articles relevant to Romantic period studies.

Here is a post by the editor Katherine M. Quinsey on her experience of putting the volume together (reproduced with permission). Please also see below for details of the book itself.

 

Animals and humans in the long eighteenth century: an intricate relationship

How does a scholarly book get started? In the majority of cases it is bound with the author or editor’s passion and deep-rooted (and often inexplicable) connection with his or her subject matter. For me, Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820 began nearly ten years ago, when I read Kathryn Shevelow’s eminently readable book For the love of animals, about the growth of the animal welfare movement in the eighteenth century. Our relationship with animals never ceases to fascinate, as we see from the Wellcome Collection’s current exhibition ‘Making nature: how we see animals’, and animal studies has recently flourished in the academic mainstream. Like Shevelow’s book, it crosses the boundaries between specialised academic study and deeply felt human experience.

My own beginning with this subject, though, occurred almost in infancy. An innate attraction to animals, these others with whom we co-exist on this planet, is shared by almost all small children and all human cultures in one way or another, and is represented throughout human history. And as we see in very small children, in this oldest relationship of the human species we still find a deep connection and resonance. In bringing together and editing this book, it was wonderfully liberating to be able to combine a lifelong passionate interest in animals with my own professional field of eighteenth-century literary and cultural studies.

Gainsborough, Girl with pigs (1782)

Thomas Gainsborough, Girl with pigs (1782), oil on canvas; Castle Howard Collection. © Castle Howard; reproduced by kind permission of the Howard family.

1650-1820 – the timeframe we cover in our study – is the period associated both with the growth of experimental science and the horrors of vivisection, and with the rise of modern humanitarianism. While the defence of animal rights itself goes back to classical times, in the eighteenth century it was directly linked to a growing awareness of universal human rights and a new definition of humanity based on the ability to feel rather than in the primacy of reason. Together with the abolitionist and feminist movements of the later eighteenth century, animal welfare came to resemble its modern self, with legislation first enacted in 1820.

Simon after Gainsborough, The Woodman

Peter Simon after Gainsborough, The Woodman (1791 [1787]), stipple engraving; Sudbury, Gainsborough House. © Gainsborough House.

But in this book we aim to explore more deeply the human relationship with animals in the long eighteenth century, in many different forms of expression. As shown by the different essays in this volume, this ancient relationship challenges not only the arbitrary divisions of Western cultural history (classicism and romanticism, for example), and not only disciplinary boundaries between poetry and science, art and animal husbandry, fiction and natural history, but also the basic assumptions of human self-perception, in which we do not see animals as objects of our ‘objective’ study, but rather as beings with whom we share a space and who demand a mutual response. A major thread of this book, then, is the re-evaluation of sentiment and sensibility, terms that in the eighteenth century referred to the primacy of emotion, and which were not solely the prerogative of humans. Through the lens of eighteenth-century European culture, contributors to this volume show how the animal presence, whether real or imagined, forces a different reading not only of texts but also of society: how humans are changed, and how we the readers are changed, in our encounters with the non-human other, in history, art, literature, natural science and economics. More deeply, we are reminded of the power and antiquity of this relationship.

 

PUBLICATION DETAILS

Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820

Ed. Katherine M. Quinsey

European culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries witnessed a radical redefinition of ‘humanity’ and its place in the environment, together with a new understanding of animals and their relation to humans. In examining the dynamics of animal-human relations as embodied in the literature, art, farming practices, natural history, religion and philosophy of this period, leading experts explore the roots of much current thinking on interspecies morality and animal welfare.

 

Katherine M. Quinsey, Introduction

Ann A. Huse, Edmund Waller’s whales: marine mammals and animal heroism in the early Atlantic

Lucinda Cole, Guns, ivory and elephant graveyards: the biopolitics of elephants’ teeth

Anita Guerrini, Animals and natural history in eighteenth-century France

Denys Van Renen, ‘A hollow Moan’: the contours of the non-human world in James Thomson’s ‘The Seasons’

James P. Carson, The great chain of being as an ecological idea

Kathryn Ready, John Aikin, Joseph Addison and two eighteenth-century Eastern tales of remembered metempsychosis

Katherine M. Quinsey, ‘Little Lives in Air’: animal sentience and sensibility in Pope

Rachel Swinkin, ‘No, helpless thing’: interspecies intimacy in the poetry of Burns and Barbauld

Sarah R. Cohen, Thomas Gainsborough’s sensible animals

Anne Milne, Animal actors: literary pedigrees and bloodlines in eighteenth-century animal breeding

Irene Fizer, ‘An egg dropped on the sand’: the natural history of female bastardy from Mark Catesby to Mary Wollstonecraft

Barbara K. Seeber, Animals and the country-house tradition in Mary Leapor’s ‘Crumble Hall’ and Jane Austen’s ‘Mansfield Park’

Epilogue

 

Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, April 2017

ISBN 978-0-7294-1193-6, 336 pages, 19 ills

 

Recommend this book to your librarian

Book Announcement: Coleridge and Contemplation

Congratulations to Peter Cheyne and his contributors on the forthcoming Coleridge and Contemplation collection, which Peter describes below.  BARS helped to support a workshop that was part of the book’s development process.


Book announcement: Peter Cheyne (ed.), Coleridge and Contemplation, OUP, 2017

A collection of essays on Coleridge’s contemplative philosophy written by philosophers, intellectual historians, and leading literary authorities on Coleridge.

 

The editor and authors of Coleridge and Contemplation would like to thank BARS for a grant that assisted a workshop at the University of Cambridge English Faculty, 10–11 August, 2015. The workshop enabled contributing authors of Coleridge and Contemplation to present their research so that internal connections within the overall work could be better understood and developed.

Sarah Hutton, Graham Davidson, and Matthew Gibson were present as auditors, providing the authors with keen interrogations and constructive criticism. Further reviews of papers as they developed into book chapters were provided by romanticists Anthony J. Harding and Alan P. R. Gregory, philosopher Stephen Priest, and the two anonymous Coleridge scholars arranged by OUP.

The book is now available for order, and Oxford University Press have provided a 30% discount code, AAFLY6G, which can be used at the OUP webpage for the book. The remainder of this report is a description of the four parts of the book—I. Poetics and Aesthetics; II. Worldviews: Science, Ethics, and Politics; III. Metaphysics; and IV. Philosophy of Religion—and of its foreword by Mary Warnock.

 

Foreword

In her discursive foreword Mary Warnock addresses:

  • the search for meaning and truth ‘in poetry [where the] symbolic or interpretative capacity is sharpened and concentrated’;
  • whether or not we should consider Coleridge as a philosopher;
  • how Coleridge’s theory of ‘Ideas’ as objective realities distances his thinking from Kant’s;
  • the related question of whether his recourse to faith constitutes a relinquishment of philosophy, or is ‘a continuation rather than an abandonment of Reason’.

 

Part I: Poetics and Aesthetics

Jim Mays’ essay follows the ascent from the technical understanding of a poem and its processes, toward a sense of ‘spiritual contemplation’. Slow-reading a short Coleridge poem, ‘First Advent of Love’, written later in life, and representing lifelong concerns, Mays adopts Adorno’s argument that technique is the way art thinks, to describe the kind of meditation involved in both reading and writing the poem. He contrasts this kind of meditation with the different, analytical process involved in Coleridge’s prose writing. He reveals how in ‘First Advent’ feelings adjust through a web of sounds, images, and allusions (to neo-Platonic ideas about love mediated through Renaissance and contemporary German authors). Inquiry into what is most important in the poem involves the matter of how the poem works: a matter of ‘Understanding’. Mays then looks to higher, numinous qualities in the poem that go beyond the understanding, and are properly imaginative in terms of Coleridge’s diagram of the ‘Order of the Mental Powers’, mediating between ‘Understanding’ and ‘Reason’ in terms of enérgeia, the topic of my own essay.

David E. Cooper’s essay, ‘Meditation on the Move’, relates a mode of meditation with walking in natural environments. This mode is identified by drawing on texts from Coleridge, Bashō, Rousseau, and Thoreau. The style of meditation is a spontaneous, supple and responsive mindfulness of the world through which one moves. The connection is noted between this style of meditation, in which Coleridge too engaged, and the ‘rambling’ or ‘wandering’ kind of thinking encouraged by the Daoist master, Zhuangzi. Relevant considerations of why walking in natural environments seems to be especially conducive to such meditation include rhythmic calm, and an ‘unselfing’ whereby, as Coleridge puts, it, ‘individuality is lost’ when immersed in the environments through which one walks. Finally, Cooper argues that meditation on the move is hospitable to certain conceptions of reality. In particular, it encourages a sense of the world as an integral whole that comes to presence for walkers as a mysterious ‘gift’.

James Kirwan examines Coleridge’s analysis of beauty in the ‘Principles of Genial Criticism’ (1814), which aimed to establish a religious dimension to aesthetic experience. Coleridge’s argument is traced through his Kantian account of aesthetic judgement, and his assertion of unity-in-multiplicity as the formal condition of beauty, to his grounding beauty in that which is ‘pre-configured’ to our faculties. Coleridge’s depends on eighteenth-century aesthetic axioms, despite deliberately avoiding explicit reference to such accounts, electing Plotinus instead as a precursor. Coleridge is therefore reluctant, Kirwan suggests, to explain aesthetic experience in purely psychological and, potentially, exclusively naturalistic terms. The appeal to Plotinus’s traditional notion of beauty as the soul’s recognition of its divine origin, grounds aesthetic experience in religion. Concomitantly, in Coleridge’s reassertion of the claims of religion in the wake of the Enlightenment, aesthetic experience as contemplation of the world as it is becomes proof of the existence of the divine.

Kathleen Wheeler reads Dewey’s Art as Experience as steeped in Coleridge, a constant reference throughout this foundational pragmatist aesthetics. Indeed Dewey said he found ‘spiritual emancipation’ in Coleridge’s Aids to Reflection, calling it ‘my first Bible’ (qtd John Beer Aids to Reflection cxxv). Coleridge’s account of perception as active and creative––not passively receptive, gave Dewey profound insight into human experience, and helped him articulate his philosophy of ‘art as experience’ whereby art originates in imaginative ordinary life. For Coleridge, ‘act’ and ‘activity’ ground both mind and matter in the same natural powers of production/ creation: ‘a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infinite I am’. Dewey’s analogy between the error of separating art from ordinary life, and divorcing imaginativeness from ordinary perception shows how memories of prior acts of imaginative perception usurp the place of actual acts, as dead metaphors do in language.

Roger Scruton reflects on Coleridge’s famous fancy–imagination distinction, which inspired Scruton’s own distinction between fantasy and imagination. The continuing relevance of Coleridge’s distinction lies in recognizing imagination as essentially truth-directed. Importantly, we can venture into the unreal with two quite different intentions––to become lost there, or to find ourselves. We can see the unreal world as a place of escape, fulfilling dreams in cost-free ways that set up channels of reward which so often lead to addiction and psychological enslavement (as in pornography). Or, we can see the world of the unreal as an imaginative construct for deeper epistemological purposes, to know through sympathy the varieties of human life, as life that could be ours. Scruton reserves the term ‘imagination’ for this second approach. This imaginary is the unreal called to judgment by the real, in contrast with the pretence of reality in clichéd, sentimental, or kitsch fantasy.

 

Part II: Worldviews: Science, Ethics, and Politics

David Knight begins the section on Coleridge’s contemplative worldviews, and chronologically follows Coleridge’s lifetime fascination with medicine as its focus shifted from anatomy, the analysis of structures, towards physiology, elucidating the processes of life. He believed that all sciences should progress from a static to a dynamic world-view, making them worthy of contemplation, feeding Reason rather than just understanding. Through Thomas Beddoes in Bristol he met young Humphry Davy, whose dynamical researches on laughing gas and electrochemistry delighted him. Coleridge became a critic of science as well as literature, rejoicing as Davy isolated new metals, cast light on acidity, and invented the miners’ safety lamp. But after 1820 Davy turned haughty, and Coleridge deplored chemists’ empire-building as science became a professional career; while in medicine French materialism threatened the dynamic vitalism of John Hunter that Coleridge and his host James Gillman favoured. Sadly science, once so promising, looked decreasingly suitable for his kind of philosophical contemplation.

Philip Aherne examines Coleridge’s influence in Cambridge through the nineteenth century, especially as it affected the development of a philosophy he opposed, utilitarianism. Aherne accepts Skorupski’s (1993) assessment of Coleridge as an important precursor of British idealism, finding his philosophy a particular blend of German transcendentalism, Platonic creeds, and Christian ethics representing a distinct school in its own terms. His contemporary significance was undoubtedly influential. In 1890, James Martineau argued for Coleridge’s influence in British philosophy through the nineteenth century, claiming that ‘his Platonic gospel has passed in the heart of our generation’ and declared that ‘empirical psychology and utilitarian ethics are the permanent objects of Coleridge’s hostility’. Martineau was extending Mill’s dichotomous paradigm of Bentham versus Coleridge. Aherne, however, questions the stability of this opposition, claiming that Mill’s development of Utilitarian ethics depended on Coleridge’s epistemological distinction between Reason and Understanding.

Kaz Oishi assesses contemplation in Coleridge’s philanthropic thought in the 1810s. Even after his disillusionment with the French Revolution, he remained preoccupied with welfare issues such as destitution and the condition of labourers. His new stance towards national ‘well-being’ emphasizes the contemplative power of the human mind both in religious and secular spheres. Oishi describes how Coleridge developed it in response to Robert Owen’s welfare and educational programmes as manifested in New View of Society (1813). Coleridge’s The Statesman’s Manual (1816) and A Lay Sermon (1817) can be read as a critique of Owen’s secular and empiricist notion of philanthropy. It is also significant that this contemplative ideal of ‘well-being’ serves as an antithesis to the Utilitarian concept of wealth under a laissez-faire economy. Coleridge’s contemplation as ‘a total act of the soul’ distinguishes itself as a unique politico-religious virtue in the context of the 1810s.

Andy Hamilton assesses Coleridge’s place in conservative and liberal traditions of thought. In the decades after his death, Coleridge was regarded as a conservative. Mill saw him as a ‘Tory philosopher’; he viewed Coleridgean conservatism as some have seen Burke’s, as a Second––not Counter––Enlightenment view. Burke does not figure as a conservative in Mill’s discussion. However, late nineteenth-century constructors of an ideology of English conservatism preferred to appeal to Burke’s scepticism about reason, while Coleridge’s philosophical prestige was waning. Coleridge’s affiliation with Continental-style ‘rational conservatism’ is also assessed. Competing conceptions of reason condition his rationalism. The picture is similar when one considers the relation between his conservatism and his radicalism. With every major conservative thinker––Burke, Coleridge, Oakeshott––this question of progressiveness versus conservatism arises.

 

Part III: Metaphysics

Peter Cheyne’s essay discusses Coleridge’s ‘Order of the Mental Powers’ (OMP) in the context of what he identifies as the energic–energetic distinction. The OMP diagram is used to show Coleridge as a two-levels theorist, with the higher and lower levels capable of participation across a fundamental difference. Coleridge is thus a thinker communicating the dynamics of thought within an overarching concern for the ‘energies of Reason’. The restless, flowing, and challenging quality of his writings is therefore balanced by, and subordinated to, the higher level of intellection that he held as a spiritual conatus straining towards ultimate ends and meaningful values. In this two-level theory, energetic desire, pleasure, psychological forces of association, and the ‘mechanical’ understanding operate more naturally on the lower level, while the higher understanding, imagination, and ‘Positive Reason’ work within the enérgeia of free will in the higher mind.

Dillon Struwig presents Coleridge as a two-levels theorist of the innate powers of mind, arguing that Coleridge distinguishes (1) a transcendental, Kantian sense of the a priori, consisting in the principles of human discursive cognition (comparable to Plato’s dianoia), from (2) a noetic, Platonic a priori, consisting in the principles of intellectual intuition (or ēsis, an intuitive cognition that apprehends ontological, theological, and ethical truths). Drawing on Logic and Opus Maximum, Struwig demonstrates that Coleridge takes Kantian a priori principles to be ‘subjectively real’ principles of cognition dependent upon the cognitive constitution of finite subjects, whereas Platonic a priori principles are for Coleridge ‘objectively real’ principles of cognition (and of being) that are dependent upon ‘the transcendent and unindividual’ reason (i.e. God, ‘the absolute Self, Spirit, or Mind’). This two-levels theory is framed in terms of Coleridge’s Kantian ‘threefold division’ of the human cognitive capacities into sense, understanding, and reason, and their respective a priori operations and contents.

Cristina Flores explores the influence of Cambridge Platonist Ralph Cudworth’s philosophical system on Coleridge’s notion of contemplation. Coleridge studied Cudworth’s True Intellectual System early in his career, from 1795 to 1797, before his acquaintance with German thought. Flores contends that Coleridge’s theory of contemplative experience has an initial basis in the Cambridge Platonist’s ontological and epistemological tenets. Coleridge’s conversation poems, written during his perusal of Cudworth’s magnum opus, lay the groundwork for a metaphysical theory of contemplation. In these, which he called ‘Meditative Poems in Blank Verse’, Coleridge dramatizes meditative experience as he conceived it at this early stage of his career. Flores establishes a comparison between Coleridge’s early view of contemplative experience, and the related ‘Order of the Mental Powers’ in considering the influence of Cudworth’s philosophical tenets in Coleridge’s Platonist foundations.

Douglas Hedley takes as his theme the deep roots in the Platonic tradition of Coleridge’s view of contemplation as the experience of nóēsis, for Plato the highest form of epistēmē, being the knowledge of ‘Ideas’ beyond dianoia (discursive and conceptual understanding). Coleridge’s theory of the symbol only makes sense within this metaphysical-theological context. Plotinus’s decisive contribution within Coleridge’s metaphysics is often overlooked. Contemplation, for Plotinus, is connected to Gift. Contemplation is always a return to the ‘Giving’ of the One (rooted in Plato’s ‘unbegrudging’ Goodness of the demiurge, Timaeus 29), and this process of gift and return is mirrored throughout different levels of reality. Like the Cambridge Platonists before him, Coleridge furnished this contemplative return with a Trinitarian articulation. Coleridge’s own contemplative theology is especially inspired by the revival of neo-Platonism in German idealism.

James Engell concludes the section on metaphysics with a comprehensive and illuminating treatment of Coleridge’s philosophy as it incorporates what Engell sees as a series of processes, beings, and relations that are contemplative and yet, most fundamentally, active. Giving central place to the ‘originating Act of self affirmation’, which has profound implications for Coleridge’s religious views as well as for his philosophic thought, this essay considers Coleridge’s metaphysics and his philosophy of religion as one. Coleridge holds that the Act links philosophy and religion so that they are inseparable. Moreover, his insistence on a series of related acts, on agency, as central to religious and philosophical thought has implications for his emphasis on the Will and the Trinity, as well as for his principle of the Logos and what he calls the ‘Dynamic Philosophy’ and its ‘polar logic’.  In this manner he may be seen as a modified Platonist, yet also something of a pragmatist, and a trinitarian Christian.

 

Part IV: Philosophy of Religion

Coleridge tells us that religion passes beyond the ken, the horizon, of reason, with faith its continuation. Michael McGhee reflects on Coleridge’s illuminating metaphor of twilight, night, and the starry heavens to see how the experiential forms it draws on can affect our understanding of terms like ‘reason’ and ‘faith’. Tentatively suppressing the face value acceptance of those terms, McGhee concentrates on the metaphor and the experience, to see where they lead without the leash of orthodox doctrine controlling the interpretation. Preserving ‘the Soul steady and concentered in its Trance of inward Adoration’ is the crucial experience. Twilight stealing into darkness and into night suggests progressing stillness, its associated concentration opening up a real prospect, the starry heavens, ordinarily concealed by the light of day and quotidian clamour. McGhee then reflects on Buddhist meditational traditions, where concentration or samadhi is as a condition of awakening, seeing things as they are, and this is associated with ‘compassion’ or karuna.

Noriko Naohara explores Coleridgean contemplation as ‘an inward Beholding having a similar relation to the Intelligible or Spiritual, as sense has to the Material or Phenomenal’. Though the development of his religious thinking involves much conflict between rationalism and faith, Coleridge retained Christian spirituality and this definition of Reason indicates his confidence about the human mind intuiting God as spiritual substance. His idea of language is similar to St Augustine’s, and he thinks that human speech could denote the divine Word as Augustine shows in The Trinity. He suggests that the generative process of human language is guided by the Will longing for redemption by Christ. Reason will return towards God supported by the aspiring Will that would move towards the divine Word, or Reason in its objective sense. His theology is that of waiting on God and it shows us a significant guide to faith in a post-Kantian era.

Suzanne Webster concentrates on Coleridge’s theological reflections, especially those of his final years. She finds in Coleridge’s notebooks and other key works, including the Theory of Life and Aids to Reflection, generally consistent results in his efforts to define, desynonymize, and establish the ‘Order of the Mental Powers’. By 1830, with regard to the human being on earth (or the earthly human ‘Personal Identity’), he had filled out his perception of the order of these powers in the context of what he called the ‘triple Ichheit’. Regarding Coleridge’s thought about the origins of contemplative acts and their processes, Webster’s essay explores the ‘Order of the Mental Powers’ as Coleridge saw them within the contexts of the triple Ichheit. She further explains how this ordering related to Coleridge’s thoughts on God, the hypostases of the Trinity, and the relationships between Will, Reason, and Faith.

Gerald Janzen’s essay, ‘Notebook 55 as Contemplative Coda to Coleridge’s Work and Life’, is fittingly the final essay in the volume. This essay construes Coleridge’s last Notebook (March–April 1834, which he titled, ‘Faith, Prayer, Meditation’) as the coda to his work and life, on analogy with the concluding lines to Biographia Literaria and to Opus Maximum Fragment 2, lines likewise taken as codas to their respective works. Building on Mays’ characterization of Coleridge’s ‘poetry of the affections’, and on his identification of the arc of Coleridge’s life as arising within the bosom of his father’s so-called ‘simple’ faith, navigating ‘strange seas of thought’, and coming home at the end to his own (more complicated) simplicity, Janzen argues that one ‘Clew’ to Notebook 55 as coda to his work and life lies in the place the affections enjoy in Coleridge’s notebooks of 1827–34, whose entries most deeply constitute exercises in contemplation.

 

The BARS Review, No. 48 (Autumn 2016)

The Editors are pleased to announce the publication of the 48th number of The BARS Review, the sixth available in full online through the new website.  This number includes thirty reviews covering thirty-five new publications, as well as a special spotlight on works dealing with the Romantic Essayists.  The list of contents below includes links to the html versions of the articles, but all the reviews are also available as pdfs.  If you want to browse through the whole number at your leisure, a pdf compilation of all the reviews is available (this can be downloaded from the main review page or using the link at the foot of the list below).

The BARS Review site as a whole now includes over two hundred reviews of relatively recent publications in the field of Romantic Studies, freely available online both for people interested in particular books and as a searchable corpus that can be used to explore new developments within broader fields.

If you have any comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.

Editor: Susan Valladares (St Hugh’s College, University of Oxford)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)


The BARS Review, No 48 (2016)

Table of Contents

Reviews

Helen E. M. Brooks, Actresses, Gender and the Eighteenth-Century Stage: Playing Women
   Anna Louise Senkiw
Wendy C. Nielsen, Women Warriors in Romantic Drama
   Cecilia Feilla
William D. Brewer, Staging Romantic Chameleons and Imposters and Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, New World Drama: The Performative Commons in the Atlantic World, 1649-1849
   Dana Van Kooy
Jeremy Tambling, Hölderlin and the Poetry of Tragedy: Readings in Sophocles, Shakespeare, Nietzsche and Benjamin
   Chris Murray
Diane Piccitto, Blake’s Drama, Theatre, Performance and Identity in the Illuminated Books and Michael Farrell, Blake and the Methodists
   Mark Crosby
Helen P. Bruder and Tristanne Connolly, eds., Sexy Blake
   Susan Matthews
Monika M. Elbert and Lesley Ginsberg, eds., Romantic Education in Nineteenth-Century American Literature: National and Transatlantic Contexts
   Richard De Ritter
Eva König, The Orphan in Eighteenth-Century Fiction: The Vicissitudes of the Eighteenth-Century Subject
   Laura Peters
Richard Gravil and Daniel Robinson, eds., The Oxford Handbook of William Wordsworth and Jonathan Wordsworth, The Invisible World: Lectures from the Wordsworth Summer Conference and Wordsworth Winter School, selected and ed. Richard Haynes
   Keith Hanley
Alex Broadhead, The Language of Robert Burns: Style, Ideology, and Identity
   Christopher Donaldson
Henry Stead, A Cockney Catullus: The Reception of Catullus in Romantic Britain, 1795-1821
   David Wray
Porscha Fermanis and John Regan, eds., Rethinking British Romantic History, 1779-1845 and Ben Dew and Fiona Price, eds., Historical Writing in Britain 1688-1830: Visions of History
   Alex Broadhead
Emily Rohrbach, Modernity’s Mist: British Romanticism and the Poetics of Anticipation
   Chris Bundock
Alistair Heys, The Anatomy of Bloom: Harold Bloom and the Study of Influence and Anxiety
   Rachel Schulkins
Heather J. Jackson, Those Who Write for Immortality: Romantic Reputations and the Dream of Lasting Fame
   Beatrice Turner
Susan J. Wolfson, Reading John Keats
   Emily Rohrbach
Jacqueline Mulhallen, Percy Bysshe Shelley: Poet and Revolutionary
   Josefina Tuominen-Pope
Franca Dellarossa, Talking Revolution: Edward Rushton’s Rebellious Poetics and Paul Baines, ed., The Collected Writings of Edward Rushton
   Ryan Hanley
Jeffrey N. Cox, Romanticism in the Shadow of War: Literary Culture in the Napoleonic War Years
   Kenneth R. Johnston
Oskar Cox Jensen, Napoleon and British Song, 1797–1822
   Erica Buurman
Ina Ferris, Book-Men, Book Clubs, and the Romantic Literary Sphere
   James M. Morris
Mary O’Connell, Byron and John Murray: A Poet and His Publisher
   Charlotte May
Marie Mulvey-Roberts, ed., Literary Bristol: Writers and the City
   Paul Cheshire
Angela Esterhammer, Diane Piccitto and Patrick Vincent, eds., Romanticism, Rousseau, Switzerland: New Prospects
   Adrian J. Wallbank
Martha C. Nussbaum and Alison L. LaCroix, eds., Subversion and Sympathy: Gender, Law, and the British Novel
   Céline Sabiron
Teresa Barnard, ed., British Women and the Intellectual World in the Long Eighteenth Century
   Joseph Morrissey
Louise Curran, Samuel Richardson and the Art of Letter-Writing
   Rachel Sulich

Spotlight: Romantic Essayists

James Grande, William Cobbett, the Press and Rural England: Radicalism and the Fourth Estate
   Alex Benchimol
Robert Morrison and Daniel S. Roberts, eds., Romanticism and Blackwood’s Magazine: ‘An Unprecedented Phenomenon’
   Meiko O’Halloran
Kevin Gilmartin, William Hazlitt: Political Essayist
   Tristram Wolff

Whole Number

The BARS Review, No. 48 (Autumn 2016) – review compilation
   The BARS Review Editors

 

Call for Contributors: Ancient Egypt in the Modern Imagination

Please see below for a new call for contributors from Ellie Dobson for a collection following on this year’s Tea with the Sphinx conference.


Ancient Egypt in the Modern Imagination

 

Bonaparte’s invasion of Egypt in 1798 sparked what has come to be known as ‘Egyptomania’, an intense fascination for ancient Egypt that permeated the cultural imagination in the late eighteenth century and beyond. Since this moment, across the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, subsequent ‘waves’ of interest in ancient Egypt have seen the history and iconography of this civilisation drawn upon for all varieties of purposes.

The editors seek essays addressing engagements with the culture of ancient Egypt from the late eighteenth century to the present day. From Parisian graveyards decorated with winged solar discs, to tales of mummies’ curses appearing in periodicals and newspapers; glitzy strip-teases of the fin de siècle, to Hollywood blockbusters of the twentieth century; this project aims to unite essays on a variety of aspects of ancient Egypt in the cultural imagination in order to explore and investigate the driving forces behind the fascination that these myriad forms embody.
Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Factual or fictional literature
  • Travel writing and illustration
  • Memoir
  • Journalism
  • Art
  • Photography
  • Architecture and landscapes
  • Theatre
  • Material culture
  • Popular culture, film, TV, music, fashion
  • Representations of Egyptology
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Religion, spiritualism and occultism
  • Orientalism

Abstracts should be 500 words in length, should emphasise content, argument, sources, and how the existing literature is being built upon, and should be accompanied by four or five keywords. These, along with a short biographical note, should be sent by 16 January 2017 to teawiththesphinx@gmail.com. Completed essays will be expected by 1 May 2017.

New number of The BARS Review

We’ve just published the autumn number of The BARS Review, containing thirty-five containing thirty-five reviews covering forty-three recent publications in the field of Romantic Studies, with a ‘Spotlight’ feature focusing on recent work in the field of Romanticism and Science.  The table of contents below provides a direct link to each of the reviews in html format; all the reviews are also available as downloadable pdfs and the complete number can be downloaded with a table of contents here (large file).  We hope that you enjoy all the contributions to this number, but if you do have any feedback or suggestions as to how the Review can be improved, we’d be glad to hear these either in the comments here or by email to the Editor, Dr Susan Valladares.

The BARS Review, No. 46 (Autumn 2015)

Table of Contents

Reviews

John Bugg, Five Long Winters: The Trials of British Romanticism; Kenneth R. Johnston, Unusual Suspects; and Murray Pittock, Material Culture and Sedition, 1688–1760
   Elias Greig
David Simpson, Romanticism and the Question of the Stranger and Jane Stabler, The Artistry of Exile: Romantic and Victorian Writers in Italy
   Omar F. Miranda
Peter J. Kitson, Forging Romantic China: Sino-British Cultural Exchange 1760-1840 and David Vallins, Kaz Oishi and Seamus Perry, eds., Coleridge, Romanticism and the Orient: Cultural Negotiations
   Andrew Rudd
Elizabeth A. Bohls, Romantic Literature and Postcolonial Studies
   Kang-yen Chiu
Daniel E. White, From Little London to Little Bengal: Religion, Print and Modernity in Early British India
   Daniel S. Roberts
Cynthia Schoolar Williams, Hospitality and the Transatlantic Imagination, 1815-1835
   Evan Gottlieb
David Sergeant and Fiona Stafford, eds., Burns and Other Poets
   Vivien Estelle Williams
Evan Gottlieb, Walter Scott and Contemporary Theory
   Ainsley McIntosh
James Noggle, The Temporality of Taste in Eighteenth-Century British Writing and Ashley Chantler, Michael Davies and Philip Shaw, eds., Literature and Authenticity, 1780-1900
   Matthew Scott
Nancy Yousef, Romantic Intimacy
   Ashley Jenkins
Monika Class, Coleridge and Kantian Ideas in England, 1796-1817: Coleridge’s Responses to German Philosophy
   Philip Aherne
Lisa Feurzeig, Schubert’s Lieder and the Philosophy of Early German Romanticism
   Kristina Muxfeldt
Stephanie Kuduk Weiner, Clare’s Lyric: John Clare and Three Modern Poets
   Andrew Hodgson
Gavin Hopps, ed., Byron’s Ghosts: The Spectral, the Spiritual and the Supernatural
   Anna Camilleri
Mark Sandy, Romanticism, Memory, and Mourning
   Tim Chiou
Daniel Cook, Thomas Chatterton and Neglected Genius, 1760-1830
   Nick Groom
Jane Darcy, Melancholy and Literary Biography, 1640-1816
   Anita O’Connell
Michael Phillips, ed., William Blake. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
   David Fuller
Martin Blocksidge, The Banker Poet: The Rise and Fall of Samuel Rogers
   Charlotte May
Rachel Schulkins, Keats, Modesty, and Masturbation
  James Najarian
Barbara K. Seeber, Jane Austen and Animals
   James Castell
Mary Brunton, Self-Control, ed. Anthony Mandal and Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade, In Search of Jane Austen: The Language of the Letters
   Katie Halsey
John Wiltshire, The Hidden Jane Austen
   Anne-Claire Michoux
Angela Escott, ‘The Celebrated Hannah Cowley’: Experiments in Dramatic Genre
   Kathleen James-Cavan
Allan I. Macinnes and Douglas J. Hamilton, eds., Jacobitism, Enlightenment and Empire
   Bob Harris
Mark Philp, Reforming Ideas in Britain: Politics and Language in the Shadow of the French Revolution 1789-1815
   Amanda Goodrich
Marisa Linton, Choosing Terror: Virtue, Friendship and Authenticity in the French Revolution
   Joseph Clarke
Julia Swindells and David Francis Taylor, eds., The Oxford Handbook of the Georgian Theatre, 1737-1832
   David Kennerley
Patrick Spedding and Paul Watt, General eds.; Ed Cray, David Gregory and Derek B. Scott, Volume eds., Bawdy Songbooks of the Romantic Period
   Simon Kövesi

Spotlight: Romanticism and Science

Jon Klancher, Transfiguring the Arts and Sciences: Knowledge and Cultural Institutions in the Romantic Age and Roderick Tweedy, The God of the Left Hemisphere: Blake, Bolte Taylor, and the Myth of Creation
   Robert Mitchell
Martin Priestman, The Poetry of Erasmus Darwin: Enlightened Spaces, Romantic Times
   Trevor H. Levere
Warwick Mules, With Nature: Nature Philosophy as Poetics Through Schelling, Heidegger, Benjamin and Nancy
   Frederick Gregory
Robert Mitchell, Experimental Life: Vitalism in Romantic Science and Literature
   Jan Golinski
David Ward, Coleridge and the Nature of Imagination: Evolution, Engagement with the World, and Poetry
   Jessica Roberts
Sharon Ruston, Creating Romanticism: Case Studies in the Literature, Science and Medicine of the 1790s and Carmen Casaliggi and Paul March-Russell, eds., Legacies of Romanticism: Literature, Culture, Aesthetics
   Edward Larrissy

Whole Number

The BARS Review No. 46 (Autumn 2015) – review compilation (.pdf)
   The BARS Review Editors

Romantic London Website

HorwoodBanner2

Abusing my position as editor here briefly, I’d just like to point readers in the direction of a new digital project I’m working on which puts Richard Horwood’s ‘PLAN of the Cities of LONDON and WESTMINSTER the Borough of SOUTHWARK, and PARTS adjoining Shewing every HOUSE’ (1792-9) into conversation with a series of other Romantic-period works which seek to organise the city.  The site features a detailed, zoomable version of the Plan (from images provided by the British Library) layered over modern digital maps of the city, allowing for comparisons and contrasts.  It currently features annotated versions placing plates from the Microcosm of London (1808-10), plates and text from Modern London (1804) and text from Fores’s New Guide for Foreigners and the 1788 edition of Harris’s List of Covent-Garden Ladies.  The site is very much a work in progress at present – eventually, there’ll be a number of additional functions and several series of more literary annotations – but hopefully what’s there at present will already be of use for scholars working on the Romantic-period metropolis.  If you have any thoughts on the site (or have any problems using it), I’d be very grateful for any ideas or feedback.

 

The BARS Review No. 45

 

barsimage_07We’re pleased to announce that the spring issue of The BARS Review has just been released.  This is the second issue published exclusively in the new open-access online format, and the forty-fifth BARS publication counting the previous numbers of the BARS Bulletin & Review (back issues available here).

The new number contains thirty-six reviews covering forty recent books relating to the Romantic period, including, for the first time, a special spotlight covering three non-English-language publications.  Each review can be viewed online either in html or pdf format (click the links to the right of each title); the pdfs of reviews can also be downloaded.  If you’d like to work your way through the whole number away from your computer screen, all the reviews can be downloaded as a single pdf, which includes numbered contents pages.  The reviews from the previous issue and the final issue of the old Bulletin are also available through the site, which now includes a total of one hundred fully-searchable reviews.

We’re keen to solicit feedback to help us to keep improving The BARS Review – comments can be sent to the Editor, Susan Valladares, at susan.valladares@ell.ox.ac.uk.