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The BARS Review, No. 53 (Spring-Autumn 2019)

William Blake, Illustration to Dante’s “Divine Comedy”, ‘Paradiso’, Canto XXV – St Peter, St James, Dante and Beatrice with St John (1824-27). © Trustees of the British Museum. Reproduction used under a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.

We are glad to announce the publication of the most recent issue of The BARS Review (No. 53, Spring-Autumn 2019).  The issue contains a total of fifteen reviews of recent scholarly work within the field of Romanticism, broadly conceived.  Six of the reviews compromise a ‘spotlight’ section on ‘Romantic Ideas’.

If you have comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or its content.  Mark Sandy would also be very happy to hear from people who would like to review for BARS.

Editor: Mark Sandy (Durham University)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton) and Anthony Mandal (Cardiff University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)

No 53 (2019)

Table of Contents


Christina Lupton, Reading and the Making of Time in the Eighteenth Century
Sophie Laniel-Musitelli
Joanna Wharton, Material Enlightenment: Women Writers and the Science of Mind, 1770-1830
Olivia Murphy
Sibylle Erle and Morton D. Paley, eds., Reception of William Blake in Europe
Susan Matthews
Jeff Strabone, Poetry and British Nationalisms in the Bardic Eighteenth Century: Imagined Antiquities
David Stewart
Brandon C. Yen, The Excursion and Wordsworth’s Iconography
Brandon Wernette
Stephanie Elizabeth Churms, Romanticism and Popular Magic: Poetry and Cultures of the Occult in the 1790s
Tim Sommer
Robin Schofield, The Vocation of Sara Coleridge: Authorship and Religion
Amy Wilcockson
Jessica Fay, Wordsworth’s Monastic Inheritance: Poetry, Place, and the Sense of Community
Adam Potkay
Heather Tilley, Blindness and Writing: From Wordsworth to Gissing
Jayne Thomas

Spotlight: Romantic Ideas

Paul Cheshire, William Gilbert and Esoteric Romanticism: A Contextual Study and Annotated Edition of The Hurricane
Jacob Lloyd
Dahlia Porter, Science, Form, and the Problem of Induction in British Romanticism
James Morland
Maximiliaan van Woudenberg, Coleridge and Cosmopolitan Intellectualism 1794–1804: The Legacy of Göttingen University
Chris Townsend
Evan Gottlieb, Romantic Realities: Speculative Realism and British Romanticism
David Higgins
Brian Rejack and Michael Theune, eds., Keats’s Negative Capability: New Origins and Afterlives
Amina Brik
Charles Morris Lansley, Charles Darwin’s Debt to the Romantics: How Alexander von Humboldt, Goethe and Wordsworth Helped Shape Darwin’s View of Nature
Daniel Vázquez Calvo

Whole Number

The BARS Review, No. 53 (Spring-Autumn 2019) – review compilation
The BARS Review Editors

New Content – Romantic Circles Reviews & Receptions

Romantic Circles Reviews & Receptions invites you to check out the exciting new content we have published recently:

  • We are pleased to announce a new section of its site dedicated to conference panel reviews. Just up are reviews of panels from the 2019 NASSR Chicago conference Romantic Elements by Ben Blackman, Sharon Choe, and Elizabeth Giardina, and a collective effort from Alexandra Milsom, Brian Rejack, and Shavera Seneviratne. We also have reviews of panels from the 2019 ICR Manchester conference Romanticism Now and Then by Hannah McAuliffe and Lucia Scigliano and a review of Anne-Lise François’s keynote lecture by Ross Wilson.
  • Recently published book reviews include Richard C. Sha’s Imagination and Science in Romanticism by Bysshe Inigo Coffey, Dahlia Porter’s Science, Form, and the Problem of Induction in British Romanticism by Jeanne Britton, Jonathan Sachs’s The Poetics of Decline in British Romanticism by Carmen Faye Mathes, and Manu Samriti Chander’s Brown Romantics: Poetry and Nationalism in the Global Nineteenth Century by Nikki Hessell, Alexander Regier’s Exorbitant Enlightenment: Blake, Hamann and Anglo-German Constellations by David Simpson, among others.
  • Jim Rovira has curated music playlists for his two recent collections Rock and Romanticism: Blake, Wordsworth, and Rock from Dylan to U2 and Rock and Romanticism: Post-Punk, Goth, and Metal as Dark Romanticisms, both of which can be streamed through iTunes or Spotify.
  • Our section on “Romanticism and Popular Culture” continues to document both old and new references to Romantic texts and figures in, for example, HBO’s mini series Watchmen, runway shows at New York fashion week, and Mel Brooks’s Blazing Saddles. Have you seen any Romanticism in the wilds of pop culture lately? If so, please submit your examples here.

We are also happy to welcome two new Associate Editors Alex Gatten and Lenora Hanson. If you have ideas for reviews of books, conferences, or digital scholarship resources, or for bookchats or booklists, then please get in touch with a member of the editorial collective here.

Associate Editors: Suzanne L. Barnett, Alex Gatten, Lenora Hanson, and Ross Wilson

General Editors: Orrin Wang and Paul Youngquist

The BARS Review, No. 52 (Autumn 2018)

We are delighted to announce the publication of the most recent issue of The BARS Review (No 52, Autumn 2018).  The issue contains a total (including a double review) of nineteen reviews of recent scholarly work within the field of Romanticism, broadly conceived.  Five of the nineteen reviews compromise a ‘spotlight’ section on ‘Romanticism, the Landscape, and the Environment’.

This issue of The BARS Review is dedicated to the memory of Professor Michael O’Neill (1953-2018) and includes his review of John Barnard’s 21st-Century Oxford Authors: John Keats.

If you have comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.  Mark Sandy would also be very happy to hear from people who would like to review for BARS.

Editor: Mark Sandy (Durham University)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)

Table of Contents


To Michael O’Neill (1953-2018)
Mark Sandy


John Regan, Poetry and the Idea of Progress, 1760-1790
Fiona Milne
Roger Maioli, Empiricism and the Early Theory of the Novel
Gillian Skinner
Diego Saglia, European Literatures in Britain, 1815-1832
Gillian Dow
Jonathan Crimmins, The Romantic Historicism to Come
Francesco Marchionni
G. A. Rosso, The Religion of Empire: Political Theology in Blake’s Prophetic Symbolism and Chris Bundock and Elizabeth Effinger, eds., William Blake’s Gothic Imagination: Bodies of Horror
Sibylle Erle
Heidi Thomson, Coleridge and the Romantic Newspaper: The Morning Post and the Road to ‘Dejection’
Charles W. Mahoney
Madeleine Callaghan, Shelley’s Living Artistry: Poems, Letters, Plays
Christopher Stokes
O. Bradley Bassler, Kant, Shelley and the Visionary Critique of Metaphysics
Merrilees Roberts
Roger Whitson, Steampunk and Nineteenth-Century Digital Humanities: Literary Retrofuturisms, Media Archaeologies, Alternate Histories
Kostas Boyiopoulos
Bo Earle, Post-Personal Romanticism: Democratic Terror, Prosthetic Poetics, and the Comedy of Modern Ethical Life
Paul Hamilton
Jane Austen, The Beautifull Cassandra: A Novel in Twelve Chapters. Afterword by Claudia L. Johnson. Artwork by Leon Steinmetz.
Megan Quinn
Ainsley McIntosh, ed., Marmion: a Tale of Flodden Field. The Edinburgh Edition of Walter Scott’s Poetry.
Anna Fancett
John Barnard, ed., 21st-Century Oxford Authors: John Keats
Michael O’Neill

Spotlight: Romanticism, Landscape, and the Environment

Julia M. Wright, Representing the National Landscape in Irish Romanticism
Finola O’Kane
Thomas H. Ford, Wordsworth and the Poetics of Air: Atmospheric Romanticism in a Time of Climate Change
Yimon Lo
David Higgins, British Romanticism, Climate Change, and the Anthropocene – Writing Tambora
Thomas Bristow
Tom Furniss, Discovering the Footsteps of Time: Geological Travel Writing about Scotland, 1700-1820
Gerard Lee McKeever
Paige Tovey, The Transatlantic Eco-Romanticism of Gary Snyder
Antonia Spencer

Whole Number

The BARS Review, No. 52 (Autumn 2018) – review compilation
The BARS Review Editors

Romanticism Celebrates 25 Years

Written by Romanticism editor, Nicholas Roe.

The 25th publishing anniversary of Romanticism offers an opportunity to reflect on the origin of the journal three decades ago. In the mid-1990s there was no UK-based journal dedicated to publishing a broad range of essays, articles and reviews in the Romantic field. There were specialised journals, some of them of remarkable longevity such as the Keats-Shelley Memorial Bulletin and the Byron Journal. The Review of English Studies and Essays in Criticism published essays on Romantic literature from time to time alongside other material. In the US there were the Keats-Shelley Journal, Blake Quarterly, The Wordsworth Circle, and other author-focused publications, as well as the prestigious and long-established Studies in Romanticism. There seemed to be a gap for a new UK-based scholarly journal that would publish the most significant new critical and scholarly work in the field, with a reviews section dedicated to longer reviews of new work in the field.

Back cover of the first issue of Romanticism (1995).

The founding editors were myself, Drummond Bone, Jane Stabler, and Tim Webb. We met at Bow-of-Fife on a summer afternoon in 1994 and discussed how the journal might best be projected and published: we agreed that it should focus on the big picture, 1750-1850, that it should welcome critical, historical, textual and bibliographical essays prepared to the highest scholarly standards, and that it must seek to represent a full range of current methodological and theoretical debate. The immediate problem was how to find a publisher, and who to invite to join the board of Advisory Editors.

Vivian Bone was at that time Director of Edinburgh University Press, so there was, we hoped, a prestigious Scottish University publisher that would welcome the new journal and put it into successful production. The founding board of Advisory Editors comprised the following roster of distinguished scholars (with their 1995 affiliations):

John Barnard (Leeds University)
Anne Barton (Cambridge University)
Lilla Crisafulli Jones (University of Bologna)
John Donovan (University of York)
Kelvin Everest (Liverpool University)
David Fairer (Leeds University)
Neil Fraistat (University of Maryland)
Paul Hamilton (University of Southampton)
John Kerrigan (Cambridge University)
Greg Kucich (University of Notre Dame)
Nigel Leask (Cambridge University)
Grevel Lindop (Manchester University)
J. C. C. Mays (University College Dublin)
Vincent Newey (Leicester University)
Lucy Newlyn (Oxford University)
Michael O’Neill (Durham University)
David Punter (Stirling University)
Susan Wolfson (Princeton University)

The first issue of Romanticism was published by Edinburgh University Press in April 1995, with new work my Morton D. Paley, Jennifer Wallace, John Barnard, Philip Shaw, Simon Bainbridge, Jane Stabler, Timothy Clark and Mark Allen, Nick Havely, John Kerrigan and David Chandler.

Front cover of the first issue of Romanticism (1995).

Originally published twice a year, since 2006 Romanticism has been published triannually. Katie Garner at St Andrews University is now reviews editor, and the first of three 25th anniversary issues, a stimulating gathering of essays on ‘Transporting Romanticism’ has just been published. From bees to ballooning, ‘Jane Austen’s Mobility’, and Romantic and Victorian nonsense poetry Romanticism continues to show new directions of travel in Romantic studies. Some planned future issues will focus on ‘Romanticism and Ageing’, Thomas De Quincey, John Clare, and Jane Austen.

Find out more about Romanticism and read the latest issue, on ‘Transporting Romanticism’, here.

To celebrate, the editors have hand-selected 25 articles from the archive which are free to read! Read them here.

This blog has been reposted with kind permission from Prof Nicholas Roe. You can see the original post here.

The BARS Review, No. 51 (Spring 2018)

William Blake, from A Small Book of Designs: The First Book of Urizen (1794). ©Trustees of the British Museum. Used under a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.

The Editors, led by Mark Sandy, are pleased to announce the publication of the 51st number of The BARS Review, the ninth available in full online through our open-access system.  The list of contents below includes links to the html versions of the twenty-one articles, but all the reviews are also available as pdfs.  If you want to browse through the whole number at your leisure, a pdf compilation is available.

If you have comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.  Mark Sandy would also be very happy to hear from people who would like to review for BARS.

Editor: Mark Sandy (Durham University)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)

Table of Contents


Dafydd Moore, ed., The International Companion to James Macpherson and The Poems of Ossian
Gerard Lee McKeever
Timothy Michael, British Romanticism and the Critique of Political Reason
Elias Greig
Robert Mayer, Walter Scott and Fame: Authors and Readers in the Romantic Age
Caroline McCracken-Flesher
Saree Makdisi, Reading William Blake
Katherine Fender
Claire Trévien, Satire, Prints and Theatricality in the French Revolution
Ian Haywood
Richard Lansdown, ed., Byron’s Letters and Journals. A New Selection
Gioia Angeletti
Brycchan Carey, ed., The Interesting Narrative by Olaudah Equiano
John Bugg
Alan Rawes and Diego Saglia, eds., Byron and Italy
Maria Schoina
Lily Gurton-Wachter, Watchwords: Romanticism and the Poetics of Attention
Andrew Franta
E. J. Clery, Eighteen Hundred and Eleven: Poetry, Protest and Economic Crisis
Lisa Vargo
Beth Lau, ed., Jane Austen and Sciences of the Mind
Inger S. B. Brodey
E. J. Clery, Jane Austen, The Banker’s Sister
Claire Harman
Mark J. Bruhn, Wordsworth Before Coleridge: The Growth of the Poet’s Philosophical Mind, 1785-1797
Adam Potkay
Ewan James Jones, Coleridge and the Philosophy of Poetic Form and Michael Tomko, Beyond the Willing Suspension of Disbelief: Poetic Faith from Coleridge to Tolkien
Philip Aherne
Michael D. Hurley and Marcus Waithe (eds.), Thinking through Style: Non-Fiction Prose of the Long Nineteenth Century
Andrew Hodgson

Spotlight: Romantic Heirs and Inheritors

Juliet Shields, Nation and Migration: The Making of British Atlantic Literature, 1765-1835
Clare Elliott
Anahid Nersessian, Utopia, Limited: Romanticism and Adjustment
Christopher Geary
Andrew Burkett, Romantic Mediations: Media Theory and British Romanticism
Ralf Haekel
Beatrice Turner, Romantic Childhood, Romantic Heirs: Reproduction and Retrospection, 1820-1850
Malini Roy
Tom Mole, What the Victorians Made of Romanticism: Material Artifacts, Cultural Practices, and Reception History
Richard Cronin
Andrew Radford, Mary Butts and British Neo-Romanticism: The Enchantment of Place
Sam Wiseman

Whole Number

The BARS Review, No. 51 (Autumn 2018) – review compilation
The BARS Review Editors

The BARS Review, No. 50 (Autumn 2017)

George Cruikshank, ‘Death or Liberty!’ (1819). ©Trustees of the British Museum. Used under a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license.

The Editors, led from this number forward by Mark Sandy, are pleased to announce the publication of the 50th number of The BARS Review, the eighth available in full online through the new website.  The list of contents below includes links to the html versions of the fifteen articles, but all the reviews are also available as pdfs.  If you want to browse through the whole number at your leisure, a pdf compilation is available.

If you have any comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.

Editor: Mark Sandy (Durham University)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)


Neil Ramsey and Gillian Russell, eds., Tracing War in British Enlightenment and Romantic Culture
E. J. Clery
Timothy Campbell, Historical Style: Fashion and the New Mode of History, 1740–1830
Jane Taylor
J. A. Downie, ed., The Oxford Handbook of the Eighteenth-Century Novel
Natasha Simonova
Joseph Rezek, London and the Making of Provincial Literature: Aesthetics and the Transatlantic Book Trade
Jon Mee
[Robert Southey], Letters from England by Don Manuel Alvarez Espriella, ed. Carol Bolton
Diego Saglia
Kristina Mendicino, Prophecies of Language: The Confusion of Tongues in German Romanticism
James Vigus
Lisa Ottum and Seth T. Reno, eds, Wordsworth and the Green Romantics: Affect and Ecology in the Nineteenth Century
Viona Au Yeung
Tabish Khair and Johan Höglund, eds., Transnational and Postcolonial Vampires: Dark Blood
Carly Stevenson
Ruth Livesey, Writing the Stage Coach Nation: Locality on the Move in Nineteenth-Century British Literature
Christopher Donaldson
Peter Garside and Karen O’Brien, eds., The Oxford History of the Novel in English: Volume 2: English and British Fiction 1750-1820
Yi-cheng Weng
Daniel Cook and Nicholas Seager, eds., The Afterlives of Eighteenth-Century Fiction
Rachel Sulich

Spotlight: Rethinking Liberty in the Romantic Era

Jon Mee, Print, Publicity, and Popular Radicalism in the 1790s: The Laurel of Liberty
John Bugg
Fiona Price, Reinventing Liberty: Nation, Commerce and the Historical Novel from Walpole to Scott
Simon Edwards
Daniel M. Stout, Corporate Romanticism: Liberalism, Justice, and the Novel
Alexander Dick
Jennifer Orr, Literary Networks and Dissenting Print Culture in Romantic-Period Ireland
Bridget Keegan

The BARS Review, No. 49 (Spring 2017)


The Editors are pleased to announce the publication of the 49th number of The BARS Review, the seventh available in full online through the new website.  This number includes twenty-seven reviews covering thirty-one new publications, as well as a special spotlight on Romantic Revolutions.  The list of contents below includes links to the html versions of the articles, but all the reviews are also available as pdfs.  If you want to browse through the whole number at your leisure, a pdf compilation of all the reviews is available.

If you have any comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.

Editor: Susan Valladares (St Hugh’s College, University of Oxford)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)


The BARS Review, No 49 (Spring 2017)

Table of Contents


Meiko O’Halloran, James Hogg and British Romanticism: A Kaleidoscopic Art
Holly Faith Nelson
Gillian Williamson, British Masculinity in the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731 to 1815
Caroline Gonda
Bernard Beatty, Byron’s Don Juan
Anna Camilleri
Clara Tuite, Lord Byron and Scandalous Celebrity
Emily A. Bernhard Jackson
Sara Guyer, Reading with John Clare: Biopoetics, Sovereignty, Romanticism
Adam White
Adam Roberts, Landor’s Cleanness. A Study of Walter Savage Landor
Gioia Angeletti
Marilyn Butler, Mapping Mythologies: Countercurrents in Eighteenth-Century British Poetry and Cultural History
Chris Bundock
Mark Canuel, ed., British Romanticism: Criticism and Debates
Octavia Cox
Adriana Craciun, Writing Arctic Disaster: Authorship and Exploration
Murray Pittock
David Porter, The Chinese Taste in the Eighteenth Century
William Christie
Jennifer Jesse, William Blake’s Religious Vision: There’s a Methodism in His Madness
Keri Davies
Andrew Bennett, ed., William Wordsworth in Context and Robert M. Ryan, Charles Darwin and the Church of Wordsworth
Christopher Donaldson
Kate Parker and Courtney Weiss Smith, eds., Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Rise of the Novel Reconsidered and Eric Parisot, Graveyard Poetry: Religion, Aesthetics and the Mid-Eighteenth-Century Poetic Condition
Tobias Menely
Angela Wright and Dale Townshend, eds., Romantic Gothic: An Edinburgh Companion
Matt Foley
Jim Davis, Comic Acting and Portraiture in Late-Georgian and Regency England
Heather McPherson
Liam Lenihan, The Writings of James Barry and the Genre of History Painting, 1775-1809
Christopher Rovee
John Bugg, ed., The Joseph Johnson Letterbook
James M. Morris
Stewart Cooke with Elaine Bander, eds., The Additional Journals and Letters of Frances Burney, Volume I: 1784-1786
Cassandra Ulph
Amy Prendergast, Literary Salons Across Britain and Ireland in the Long Eighteenth Century
Susanne Schmid
Tim Fulford, Romantic Poetry and Literary Coteries: The Dialect of the Tribe and Tim Fulford and Michael E. Sinatra, eds., The Regency Revisited
Josefina Tuominen-Pope
Matthew Wickman, Literature After Euclid: The Geometric Imagination in the Long Scottish Enlightenment
Marcus Tomalin
Mark J. Bruhn and Donald R. Wehrs, eds., Cognition, Literature, and History
Niall Gildea
Chase Pielak, Memorializing Animals during the Romantic Period
Barbara K. Seeber

Spotlight: Romantic Revolutions

David Andress, ed., The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution
Liam Chambers
A. D. Cousins and Geoffrey Payne, eds., Home and Nation in British Literature from the English to the French Revolutions
Amy Milka
James Mulholland, Sounding Imperial: Poetic Voice and the Politics of Empire, 1730-1820 and Evan Gottlieb, Romantic Globalism: British Literature and Modern World Order, 1750-1830
Juan Luis Sánchez
Mary Fairclough, The Romantic Crowd: Sympathy, Controversy and Print Culture
David Fallon

‘Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820’ edited by Katherine M. Quinsey

From the Voltaire Foundation:

A new edited volume entitled Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820 has just been published – including several articles relevant to Romantic period studies.

Here is a post by the editor Katherine M. Quinsey on her experience of putting the volume together (reproduced with permission). Please also see below for details of the book itself.


Animals and humans in the long eighteenth century: an intricate relationship

How does a scholarly book get started? In the majority of cases it is bound with the author or editor’s passion and deep-rooted (and often inexplicable) connection with his or her subject matter. For me, Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820 began nearly ten years ago, when I read Kathryn Shevelow’s eminently readable book For the love of animals, about the growth of the animal welfare movement in the eighteenth century. Our relationship with animals never ceases to fascinate, as we see from the Wellcome Collection’s current exhibition ‘Making nature: how we see animals’, and animal studies has recently flourished in the academic mainstream. Like Shevelow’s book, it crosses the boundaries between specialised academic study and deeply felt human experience.

My own beginning with this subject, though, occurred almost in infancy. An innate attraction to animals, these others with whom we co-exist on this planet, is shared by almost all small children and all human cultures in one way or another, and is represented throughout human history. And as we see in very small children, in this oldest relationship of the human species we still find a deep connection and resonance. In bringing together and editing this book, it was wonderfully liberating to be able to combine a lifelong passionate interest in animals with my own professional field of eighteenth-century literary and cultural studies.

Gainsborough, Girl with pigs (1782)

Thomas Gainsborough, Girl with pigs (1782), oil on canvas; Castle Howard Collection. © Castle Howard; reproduced by kind permission of the Howard family.

1650-1820 – the timeframe we cover in our study – is the period associated both with the growth of experimental science and the horrors of vivisection, and with the rise of modern humanitarianism. While the defence of animal rights itself goes back to classical times, in the eighteenth century it was directly linked to a growing awareness of universal human rights and a new definition of humanity based on the ability to feel rather than in the primacy of reason. Together with the abolitionist and feminist movements of the later eighteenth century, animal welfare came to resemble its modern self, with legislation first enacted in 1820.

Simon after Gainsborough, The Woodman

Peter Simon after Gainsborough, The Woodman (1791 [1787]), stipple engraving; Sudbury, Gainsborough House. © Gainsborough House.

But in this book we aim to explore more deeply the human relationship with animals in the long eighteenth century, in many different forms of expression. As shown by the different essays in this volume, this ancient relationship challenges not only the arbitrary divisions of Western cultural history (classicism and romanticism, for example), and not only disciplinary boundaries between poetry and science, art and animal husbandry, fiction and natural history, but also the basic assumptions of human self-perception, in which we do not see animals as objects of our ‘objective’ study, but rather as beings with whom we share a space and who demand a mutual response. A major thread of this book, then, is the re-evaluation of sentiment and sensibility, terms that in the eighteenth century referred to the primacy of emotion, and which were not solely the prerogative of humans. Through the lens of eighteenth-century European culture, contributors to this volume show how the animal presence, whether real or imagined, forces a different reading not only of texts but also of society: how humans are changed, and how we the readers are changed, in our encounters with the non-human other, in history, art, literature, natural science and economics. More deeply, we are reminded of the power and antiquity of this relationship.



Animals and humans: sensibility and representation, 1650-1820

Ed. Katherine M. Quinsey

European culture in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries witnessed a radical redefinition of ‘humanity’ and its place in the environment, together with a new understanding of animals and their relation to humans. In examining the dynamics of animal-human relations as embodied in the literature, art, farming practices, natural history, religion and philosophy of this period, leading experts explore the roots of much current thinking on interspecies morality and animal welfare.


Katherine M. Quinsey, Introduction

Ann A. Huse, Edmund Waller’s whales: marine mammals and animal heroism in the early Atlantic

Lucinda Cole, Guns, ivory and elephant graveyards: the biopolitics of elephants’ teeth

Anita Guerrini, Animals and natural history in eighteenth-century France

Denys Van Renen, ‘A hollow Moan’: the contours of the non-human world in James Thomson’s ‘The Seasons’

James P. Carson, The great chain of being as an ecological idea

Kathryn Ready, John Aikin, Joseph Addison and two eighteenth-century Eastern tales of remembered metempsychosis

Katherine M. Quinsey, ‘Little Lives in Air’: animal sentience and sensibility in Pope

Rachel Swinkin, ‘No, helpless thing’: interspecies intimacy in the poetry of Burns and Barbauld

Sarah R. Cohen, Thomas Gainsborough’s sensible animals

Anne Milne, Animal actors: literary pedigrees and bloodlines in eighteenth-century animal breeding

Irene Fizer, ‘An egg dropped on the sand’: the natural history of female bastardy from Mark Catesby to Mary Wollstonecraft

Barbara K. Seeber, Animals and the country-house tradition in Mary Leapor’s ‘Crumble Hall’ and Jane Austen’s ‘Mansfield Park’



Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, April 2017

ISBN 978-0-7294-1193-6, 336 pages, 19 ills


Recommend this book to your librarian

Book Announcement: Coleridge and Contemplation

Congratulations to Peter Cheyne and his contributors on the forthcoming Coleridge and Contemplation collection, which Peter describes below.  BARS helped to support a workshop that was part of the book’s development process.

Book announcement: Peter Cheyne (ed.), Coleridge and Contemplation, OUP, 2017

A collection of essays on Coleridge’s contemplative philosophy written by philosophers, intellectual historians, and leading literary authorities on Coleridge.


The editor and authors of Coleridge and Contemplation would like to thank BARS for a grant that assisted a workshop at the University of Cambridge English Faculty, 10–11 August, 2015. The workshop enabled contributing authors of Coleridge and Contemplation to present their research so that internal connections within the overall work could be better understood and developed.

Sarah Hutton, Graham Davidson, and Matthew Gibson were present as auditors, providing the authors with keen interrogations and constructive criticism. Further reviews of papers as they developed into book chapters were provided by romanticists Anthony J. Harding and Alan P. R. Gregory, philosopher Stephen Priest, and the two anonymous Coleridge scholars arranged by OUP.

The book is now available for order, and Oxford University Press have provided a 30% discount code, AAFLY6G, which can be used at the OUP webpage for the book. The remainder of this report is a description of the four parts of the book—I. Poetics and Aesthetics; II. Worldviews: Science, Ethics, and Politics; III. Metaphysics; and IV. Philosophy of Religion—and of its foreword by Mary Warnock.



In her discursive foreword Mary Warnock addresses:

  • the search for meaning and truth ‘in poetry [where the] symbolic or interpretative capacity is sharpened and concentrated’;
  • whether or not we should consider Coleridge as a philosopher;
  • how Coleridge’s theory of ‘Ideas’ as objective realities distances his thinking from Kant’s;
  • the related question of whether his recourse to faith constitutes a relinquishment of philosophy, or is ‘a continuation rather than an abandonment of Reason’.


Part I: Poetics and Aesthetics

Jim Mays’ essay follows the ascent from the technical understanding of a poem and its processes, toward a sense of ‘spiritual contemplation’. Slow-reading a short Coleridge poem, ‘First Advent of Love’, written later in life, and representing lifelong concerns, Mays adopts Adorno’s argument that technique is the way art thinks, to describe the kind of meditation involved in both reading and writing the poem. He contrasts this kind of meditation with the different, analytical process involved in Coleridge’s prose writing. He reveals how in ‘First Advent’ feelings adjust through a web of sounds, images, and allusions (to neo-Platonic ideas about love mediated through Renaissance and contemporary German authors). Inquiry into what is most important in the poem involves the matter of how the poem works: a matter of ‘Understanding’. Mays then looks to higher, numinous qualities in the poem that go beyond the understanding, and are properly imaginative in terms of Coleridge’s diagram of the ‘Order of the Mental Powers’, mediating between ‘Understanding’ and ‘Reason’ in terms of enérgeia, the topic of my own essay.

David E. Cooper’s essay, ‘Meditation on the Move’, relates a mode of meditation with walking in natural environments. This mode is identified by drawing on texts from Coleridge, Bashō, Rousseau, and Thoreau. The style of meditation is a spontaneous, supple and responsive mindfulness of the world through which one moves. The connection is noted between this style of meditation, in which Coleridge too engaged, and the ‘rambling’ or ‘wandering’ kind of thinking encouraged by the Daoist master, Zhuangzi. Relevant considerations of why walking in natural environments seems to be especially conducive to such meditation include rhythmic calm, and an ‘unselfing’ whereby, as Coleridge puts, it, ‘individuality is lost’ when immersed in the environments through which one walks. Finally, Cooper argues that meditation on the move is hospitable to certain conceptions of reality. In particular, it encourages a sense of the world as an integral whole that comes to presence for walkers as a mysterious ‘gift’.

James Kirwan examines Coleridge’s analysis of beauty in the ‘Principles of Genial Criticism’ (1814), which aimed to establish a religious dimension to aesthetic experience. Coleridge’s argument is traced through his Kantian account of aesthetic judgement, and his assertion of unity-in-multiplicity as the formal condition of beauty, to his grounding beauty in that which is ‘pre-configured’ to our faculties. Coleridge’s depends on eighteenth-century aesthetic axioms, despite deliberately avoiding explicit reference to such accounts, electing Plotinus instead as a precursor. Coleridge is therefore reluctant, Kirwan suggests, to explain aesthetic experience in purely psychological and, potentially, exclusively naturalistic terms. The appeal to Plotinus’s traditional notion of beauty as the soul’s recognition of its divine origin, grounds aesthetic experience in religion. Concomitantly, in Coleridge’s reassertion of the claims of religion in the wake of the Enlightenment, aesthetic experience as contemplation of the world as it is becomes proof of the existence of the divine.

Kathleen Wheeler reads Dewey’s Art as Experience as steeped in Coleridge, a constant reference throughout this foundational pragmatist aesthetics. Indeed Dewey said he found ‘spiritual emancipation’ in Coleridge’s Aids to Reflection, calling it ‘my first Bible’ (qtd John Beer Aids to Reflection cxxv). Coleridge’s account of perception as active and creative––not passively receptive, gave Dewey profound insight into human experience, and helped him articulate his philosophy of ‘art as experience’ whereby art originates in imaginative ordinary life. For Coleridge, ‘act’ and ‘activity’ ground both mind and matter in the same natural powers of production/ creation: ‘a repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act of creation in the infinite I am’. Dewey’s analogy between the error of separating art from ordinary life, and divorcing imaginativeness from ordinary perception shows how memories of prior acts of imaginative perception usurp the place of actual acts, as dead metaphors do in language.

Roger Scruton reflects on Coleridge’s famous fancy–imagination distinction, which inspired Scruton’s own distinction between fantasy and imagination. The continuing relevance of Coleridge’s distinction lies in recognizing imagination as essentially truth-directed. Importantly, we can venture into the unreal with two quite different intentions––to become lost there, or to find ourselves. We can see the unreal world as a place of escape, fulfilling dreams in cost-free ways that set up channels of reward which so often lead to addiction and psychological enslavement (as in pornography). Or, we can see the world of the unreal as an imaginative construct for deeper epistemological purposes, to know through sympathy the varieties of human life, as life that could be ours. Scruton reserves the term ‘imagination’ for this second approach. This imaginary is the unreal called to judgment by the real, in contrast with the pretence of reality in clichéd, sentimental, or kitsch fantasy.


Part II: Worldviews: Science, Ethics, and Politics

David Knight begins the section on Coleridge’s contemplative worldviews, and chronologically follows Coleridge’s lifetime fascination with medicine as its focus shifted from anatomy, the analysis of structures, towards physiology, elucidating the processes of life. He believed that all sciences should progress from a static to a dynamic world-view, making them worthy of contemplation, feeding Reason rather than just understanding. Through Thomas Beddoes in Bristol he met young Humphry Davy, whose dynamical researches on laughing gas and electrochemistry delighted him. Coleridge became a critic of science as well as literature, rejoicing as Davy isolated new metals, cast light on acidity, and invented the miners’ safety lamp. But after 1820 Davy turned haughty, and Coleridge deplored chemists’ empire-building as science became a professional career; while in medicine French materialism threatened the dynamic vitalism of John Hunter that Coleridge and his host James Gillman favoured. Sadly science, once so promising, looked decreasingly suitable for his kind of philosophical contemplation.

Philip Aherne examines Coleridge’s influence in Cambridge through the nineteenth century, especially as it affected the development of a philosophy he opposed, utilitarianism. Aherne accepts Skorupski’s (1993) assessment of Coleridge as an important precursor of British idealism, finding his philosophy a particular blend of German transcendentalism, Platonic creeds, and Christian ethics representing a distinct school in its own terms. His contemporary significance was undoubtedly influential. In 1890, James Martineau argued for Coleridge’s influence in British philosophy through the nineteenth century, claiming that ‘his Platonic gospel has passed in the heart of our generation’ and declared that ‘empirical psychology and utilitarian ethics are the permanent objects of Coleridge’s hostility’. Martineau was extending Mill’s dichotomous paradigm of Bentham versus Coleridge. Aherne, however, questions the stability of this opposition, claiming that Mill’s development of Utilitarian ethics depended on Coleridge’s epistemological distinction between Reason and Understanding.

Kaz Oishi assesses contemplation in Coleridge’s philanthropic thought in the 1810s. Even after his disillusionment with the French Revolution, he remained preoccupied with welfare issues such as destitution and the condition of labourers. His new stance towards national ‘well-being’ emphasizes the contemplative power of the human mind both in religious and secular spheres. Oishi describes how Coleridge developed it in response to Robert Owen’s welfare and educational programmes as manifested in New View of Society (1813). Coleridge’s The Statesman’s Manual (1816) and A Lay Sermon (1817) can be read as a critique of Owen’s secular and empiricist notion of philanthropy. It is also significant that this contemplative ideal of ‘well-being’ serves as an antithesis to the Utilitarian concept of wealth under a laissez-faire economy. Coleridge’s contemplation as ‘a total act of the soul’ distinguishes itself as a unique politico-religious virtue in the context of the 1810s.

Andy Hamilton assesses Coleridge’s place in conservative and liberal traditions of thought. In the decades after his death, Coleridge was regarded as a conservative. Mill saw him as a ‘Tory philosopher’; he viewed Coleridgean conservatism as some have seen Burke’s, as a Second––not Counter––Enlightenment view. Burke does not figure as a conservative in Mill’s discussion. However, late nineteenth-century constructors of an ideology of English conservatism preferred to appeal to Burke’s scepticism about reason, while Coleridge’s philosophical prestige was waning. Coleridge’s affiliation with Continental-style ‘rational conservatism’ is also assessed. Competing conceptions of reason condition his rationalism. The picture is similar when one considers the relation between his conservatism and his radicalism. With every major conservative thinker––Burke, Coleridge, Oakeshott––this question of progressiveness versus conservatism arises.


Part III: Metaphysics

Peter Cheyne’s essay discusses Coleridge’s ‘Order of the Mental Powers’ (OMP) in the context of what he identifies as the energic–energetic distinction. The OMP diagram is used to show Coleridge as a two-levels theorist, with the higher and lower levels capable of participation across a fundamental difference. Coleridge is thus a thinker communicating the dynamics of thought within an overarching concern for the ‘energies of Reason’. The restless, flowing, and challenging quality of his writings is therefore balanced by, and subordinated to, the higher level of intellection that he held as a spiritual conatus straining towards ultimate ends and meaningful values. In this two-level theory, energetic desire, pleasure, psychological forces of association, and the ‘mechanical’ understanding operate more naturally on the lower level, while the higher understanding, imagination, and ‘Positive Reason’ work within the enérgeia of free will in the higher mind.

Dillon Struwig presents Coleridge as a two-levels theorist of the innate powers of mind, arguing that Coleridge distinguishes (1) a transcendental, Kantian sense of the a priori, consisting in the principles of human discursive cognition (comparable to Plato’s dianoia), from (2) a noetic, Platonic a priori, consisting in the principles of intellectual intuition (or ēsis, an intuitive cognition that apprehends ontological, theological, and ethical truths). Drawing on Logic and Opus Maximum, Struwig demonstrates that Coleridge takes Kantian a priori principles to be ‘subjectively real’ principles of cognition dependent upon the cognitive constitution of finite subjects, whereas Platonic a priori principles are for Coleridge ‘objectively real’ principles of cognition (and of being) that are dependent upon ‘the transcendent and unindividual’ reason (i.e. God, ‘the absolute Self, Spirit, or Mind’). This two-levels theory is framed in terms of Coleridge’s Kantian ‘threefold division’ of the human cognitive capacities into sense, understanding, and reason, and their respective a priori operations and contents.

Cristina Flores explores the influence of Cambridge Platonist Ralph Cudworth’s philosophical system on Coleridge’s notion of contemplation. Coleridge studied Cudworth’s True Intellectual System early in his career, from 1795 to 1797, before his acquaintance with German thought. Flores contends that Coleridge’s theory of contemplative experience has an initial basis in the Cambridge Platonist’s ontological and epistemological tenets. Coleridge’s conversation poems, written during his perusal of Cudworth’s magnum opus, lay the groundwork for a metaphysical theory of contemplation. In these, which he called ‘Meditative Poems in Blank Verse’, Coleridge dramatizes meditative experience as he conceived it at this early stage of his career. Flores establishes a comparison between Coleridge’s early view of contemplative experience, and the related ‘Order of the Mental Powers’ in considering the influence of Cudworth’s philosophical tenets in Coleridge’s Platonist foundations.

Douglas Hedley takes as his theme the deep roots in the Platonic tradition of Coleridge’s view of contemplation as the experience of nóēsis, for Plato the highest form of epistēmē, being the knowledge of ‘Ideas’ beyond dianoia (discursive and conceptual understanding). Coleridge’s theory of the symbol only makes sense within this metaphysical-theological context. Plotinus’s decisive contribution within Coleridge’s metaphysics is often overlooked. Contemplation, for Plotinus, is connected to Gift. Contemplation is always a return to the ‘Giving’ of the One (rooted in Plato’s ‘unbegrudging’ Goodness of the demiurge, Timaeus 29), and this process of gift and return is mirrored throughout different levels of reality. Like the Cambridge Platonists before him, Coleridge furnished this contemplative return with a Trinitarian articulation. Coleridge’s own contemplative theology is especially inspired by the revival of neo-Platonism in German idealism.

James Engell concludes the section on metaphysics with a comprehensive and illuminating treatment of Coleridge’s philosophy as it incorporates what Engell sees as a series of processes, beings, and relations that are contemplative and yet, most fundamentally, active. Giving central place to the ‘originating Act of self affirmation’, which has profound implications for Coleridge’s religious views as well as for his philosophic thought, this essay considers Coleridge’s metaphysics and his philosophy of religion as one. Coleridge holds that the Act links philosophy and religion so that they are inseparable. Moreover, his insistence on a series of related acts, on agency, as central to religious and philosophical thought has implications for his emphasis on the Will and the Trinity, as well as for his principle of the Logos and what he calls the ‘Dynamic Philosophy’ and its ‘polar logic’.  In this manner he may be seen as a modified Platonist, yet also something of a pragmatist, and a trinitarian Christian.


Part IV: Philosophy of Religion

Coleridge tells us that religion passes beyond the ken, the horizon, of reason, with faith its continuation. Michael McGhee reflects on Coleridge’s illuminating metaphor of twilight, night, and the starry heavens to see how the experiential forms it draws on can affect our understanding of terms like ‘reason’ and ‘faith’. Tentatively suppressing the face value acceptance of those terms, McGhee concentrates on the metaphor and the experience, to see where they lead without the leash of orthodox doctrine controlling the interpretation. Preserving ‘the Soul steady and concentered in its Trance of inward Adoration’ is the crucial experience. Twilight stealing into darkness and into night suggests progressing stillness, its associated concentration opening up a real prospect, the starry heavens, ordinarily concealed by the light of day and quotidian clamour. McGhee then reflects on Buddhist meditational traditions, where concentration or samadhi is as a condition of awakening, seeing things as they are, and this is associated with ‘compassion’ or karuna.

Noriko Naohara explores Coleridgean contemplation as ‘an inward Beholding having a similar relation to the Intelligible or Spiritual, as sense has to the Material or Phenomenal’. Though the development of his religious thinking involves much conflict between rationalism and faith, Coleridge retained Christian spirituality and this definition of Reason indicates his confidence about the human mind intuiting God as spiritual substance. His idea of language is similar to St Augustine’s, and he thinks that human speech could denote the divine Word as Augustine shows in The Trinity. He suggests that the generative process of human language is guided by the Will longing for redemption by Christ. Reason will return towards God supported by the aspiring Will that would move towards the divine Word, or Reason in its objective sense. His theology is that of waiting on God and it shows us a significant guide to faith in a post-Kantian era.

Suzanne Webster concentrates on Coleridge’s theological reflections, especially those of his final years. She finds in Coleridge’s notebooks and other key works, including the Theory of Life and Aids to Reflection, generally consistent results in his efforts to define, desynonymize, and establish the ‘Order of the Mental Powers’. By 1830, with regard to the human being on earth (or the earthly human ‘Personal Identity’), he had filled out his perception of the order of these powers in the context of what he called the ‘triple Ichheit’. Regarding Coleridge’s thought about the origins of contemplative acts and their processes, Webster’s essay explores the ‘Order of the Mental Powers’ as Coleridge saw them within the contexts of the triple Ichheit. She further explains how this ordering related to Coleridge’s thoughts on God, the hypostases of the Trinity, and the relationships between Will, Reason, and Faith.

Gerald Janzen’s essay, ‘Notebook 55 as Contemplative Coda to Coleridge’s Work and Life’, is fittingly the final essay in the volume. This essay construes Coleridge’s last Notebook (March–April 1834, which he titled, ‘Faith, Prayer, Meditation’) as the coda to his work and life, on analogy with the concluding lines to Biographia Literaria and to Opus Maximum Fragment 2, lines likewise taken as codas to their respective works. Building on Mays’ characterization of Coleridge’s ‘poetry of the affections’, and on his identification of the arc of Coleridge’s life as arising within the bosom of his father’s so-called ‘simple’ faith, navigating ‘strange seas of thought’, and coming home at the end to his own (more complicated) simplicity, Janzen argues that one ‘Clew’ to Notebook 55 as coda to his work and life lies in the place the affections enjoy in Coleridge’s notebooks of 1827–34, whose entries most deeply constitute exercises in contemplation.


The BARS Review, No. 48 (Autumn 2016)

The Editors are pleased to announce the publication of the 48th number of The BARS Review, the sixth available in full online through the new website.  This number includes thirty reviews covering thirty-five new publications, as well as a special spotlight on works dealing with the Romantic Essayists.  The list of contents below includes links to the html versions of the articles, but all the reviews are also available as pdfs.  If you want to browse through the whole number at your leisure, a pdf compilation of all the reviews is available (this can be downloaded from the main review page or using the link at the foot of the list below).

The BARS Review site as a whole now includes over two hundred reviews of relatively recent publications in the field of Romantic Studies, freely available online both for people interested in particular books and as a searchable corpus that can be used to explore new developments within broader fields.

If you have any comments on the new number, or on the Review in general, we’d be very grateful for any feedback that would allow us to improve the site or the content.

Editor: Susan Valladares (St Hugh’s College, University of Oxford)
General Editors: Ian Haywood (University of Roehampton), Susan Oliver (University of Essex) & Nicola J. Watson (Open University)
Technical Editor: Matthew Sangster (University of Glasgow)

The BARS Review, No 48 (2016)

Table of Contents


Helen E. M. Brooks, Actresses, Gender and the Eighteenth-Century Stage: Playing Women
   Anna Louise Senkiw
Wendy C. Nielsen, Women Warriors in Romantic Drama
   Cecilia Feilla
William D. Brewer, Staging Romantic Chameleons and Imposters and Elizabeth Maddock Dillon, New World Drama: The Performative Commons in the Atlantic World, 1649-1849
   Dana Van Kooy
Jeremy Tambling, Hölderlin and the Poetry of Tragedy: Readings in Sophocles, Shakespeare, Nietzsche and Benjamin
   Chris Murray
Diane Piccitto, Blake’s Drama, Theatre, Performance and Identity in the Illuminated Books and Michael Farrell, Blake and the Methodists
   Mark Crosby
Helen P. Bruder and Tristanne Connolly, eds., Sexy Blake
   Susan Matthews
Monika M. Elbert and Lesley Ginsberg, eds., Romantic Education in Nineteenth-Century American Literature: National and Transatlantic Contexts
   Richard De Ritter
Eva König, The Orphan in Eighteenth-Century Fiction: The Vicissitudes of the Eighteenth-Century Subject
   Laura Peters
Richard Gravil and Daniel Robinson, eds., The Oxford Handbook of William Wordsworth and Jonathan Wordsworth, The Invisible World: Lectures from the Wordsworth Summer Conference and Wordsworth Winter School, selected and ed. Richard Haynes
   Keith Hanley
Alex Broadhead, The Language of Robert Burns: Style, Ideology, and Identity
   Christopher Donaldson
Henry Stead, A Cockney Catullus: The Reception of Catullus in Romantic Britain, 1795-1821
   David Wray
Porscha Fermanis and John Regan, eds., Rethinking British Romantic History, 1779-1845 and Ben Dew and Fiona Price, eds., Historical Writing in Britain 1688-1830: Visions of History
   Alex Broadhead
Emily Rohrbach, Modernity’s Mist: British Romanticism and the Poetics of Anticipation
   Chris Bundock
Alistair Heys, The Anatomy of Bloom: Harold Bloom and the Study of Influence and Anxiety
   Rachel Schulkins
Heather J. Jackson, Those Who Write for Immortality: Romantic Reputations and the Dream of Lasting Fame
   Beatrice Turner
Susan J. Wolfson, Reading John Keats
   Emily Rohrbach
Jacqueline Mulhallen, Percy Bysshe Shelley: Poet and Revolutionary
   Josefina Tuominen-Pope
Franca Dellarossa, Talking Revolution: Edward Rushton’s Rebellious Poetics and Paul Baines, ed., The Collected Writings of Edward Rushton
   Ryan Hanley
Jeffrey N. Cox, Romanticism in the Shadow of War: Literary Culture in the Napoleonic War Years
   Kenneth R. Johnston
Oskar Cox Jensen, Napoleon and British Song, 1797–1822
   Erica Buurman
Ina Ferris, Book-Men, Book Clubs, and the Romantic Literary Sphere
   James M. Morris
Mary O’Connell, Byron and John Murray: A Poet and His Publisher
   Charlotte May
Marie Mulvey-Roberts, ed., Literary Bristol: Writers and the City
   Paul Cheshire
Angela Esterhammer, Diane Piccitto and Patrick Vincent, eds., Romanticism, Rousseau, Switzerland: New Prospects
   Adrian J. Wallbank
Martha C. Nussbaum and Alison L. LaCroix, eds., Subversion and Sympathy: Gender, Law, and the British Novel
   Céline Sabiron
Teresa Barnard, ed., British Women and the Intellectual World in the Long Eighteenth Century
   Joseph Morrissey
Louise Curran, Samuel Richardson and the Art of Letter-Writing
   Rachel Sulich

Spotlight: Romantic Essayists

James Grande, William Cobbett, the Press and Rural England: Radicalism and the Fourth Estate
   Alex Benchimol
Robert Morrison and Daniel S. Roberts, eds., Romanticism and Blackwood’s Magazine: ‘An Unprecedented Phenomenon’
   Meiko O’Halloran
Kevin Gilmartin, William Hazlitt: Political Essayist
   Tristram Wolff

Whole Number

The BARS Review, No. 48 (Autumn 2016) – review compilation
   The BARS Review Editors